W6 ~ An Age of Produsage

Convergence of media has entered is into an age where audience participation has changed and we no longer just have content given to us. We search, create, add and collaborate content with other internet users. This is the age of produasge.

Produsage is simultaneous content production and usage by online users (Bruns 2007). Producage consists of four elements, Organisational Shift, Fluid Movement, Unfinished and Permissive (Bruns 2007). When looking at these elements in contrast to technology, you are able to grasp an idea in the way users are participating in its development, using it and responding to it.
The platform spotify is a great example.

Spotify gives audience the ability to create their own content in the forms of playlists. Originally, this was only for individual users but due to audience demand, the collaboration feature was introduced enabling users to interact,  merge and create playlists with other Spotify users. This feature touches on the Organisational element within produsage.

Collaborative Playlist Option

Collaborative Playlist Option

The line between a user and producer on Spotify is nearly blurred with users producing personalised playlists to listen to. This touches on the next point, Fluid Movement.  Fluid movement is also seen between a more advanced group of users who develop programs to assist with their interaction with Spotify through the use of the Open Source 3rd party programs.

SMPapps 520x288 Life after playlists: ShareMyPlaylists launches a bespoke Spotify app development studio

An app developer for Spotify

Spotify has come a long way and this brings us to the third element of prod usage, Unfinished. The open source technology associated with Spotify sees audiences participate in creating new apps, features, widgets and more for their own personal use. These developments are advantageous for Spotify because as audiences create new and better programs and features, Spotify remains unfinished  adapting and improving remins itself from these advancements.

Spotify as a free platform is available for anyone to use. Now, even though the music content within Spotify is heavily copyrighted, users are still able to use it to create their own content without breaking any copyright laws, bringing in the final element of produsage, Permissive. Through the Spotify platform and its agreement with music content owners, users are able to create their own content in the forms of playlists and even create content by sharing on sites such as Facebook or Twitter from Spotify all lawfully.

Spotify is a platform which implores the phenomena that is produsage.



Bruns, Axel 2007, Produsage: Towards a broader framework for user-led content creation. In Proceedings Creativity & Cognition 6, Washington, DC. p. 99 – 106.


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